QUAID-I-AZAM UNIVERSITY

(Department of Electronics)

 

Course of Ph.D (Electronics)

The existing courses can be divided into the following tracks.

 

Track : Devices

 

EL-611                 Laser-1

Interaction of radiation with matter, stimulated emission and absorption, line broadening Mechanisms, optical and electrical pumping processed, rate equation approach, CW and transient laser behaviour, Q-switching and mode locking of laser, plane parallel and confocal optical resonators, types of lasers.

1.                  A.E. Siegman, Lasers (University Sciences Books1986).
2.                  O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Plenum Press 1982).
3.                  A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (John Wiley 1984).
4.                  A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (John Wiley 1989).
5.                  H. Haken, Light, Laser Light Dynamic (North-Holland 1985).

 EL-711                 Laser-II

Modulation of laser beams, electro-optic, acousto-optic and magneto-optic effects and devices, nonlinear optical susceptibility, electromagnetic propagation in an isotropic media, second-harmonic generation, parametric processes, optical phase conjugation, optical bistability.

1.                  A. E. Seigman, Laser (University Sciences Books 1986).
2.                  O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Plenum Press 1982).
3.                  A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (John Wiley 1984).
4.                  A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (John Wiley 1975).

 EL-651                 Microelectronics-1

MOS transistor, space vs time, logic circuits, delays, timer and clock periods, cross coupled circuit, scaling, yield statistics, formal description of design rules, two phase clocks, levels of abstraction, programmable logic arrays, finite state machines, fabrication, symbolic layout languages, system simulation test generation and testing.

1.                  C. A. mead, L. A. Conway, Introduction to VLSI Systems (polo Alto 1978).
2.                  D. A. Hodges, H. G. Jackson, Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill 1988).
3.                  M. R. Haskard, I. C. May, Analog VLSI Design (Prentice-Hall 1988).

 EL-751                 Microelectronics-II

Design of a data processing engine: ALU, buses, barrel shifter, communication, functional specification, the stored program machine, microprogramming, minimization of interchip communication, system timing-synchronization and arbitration, interfacing independently timed modules, resolution of contention, analog interface and special purposes MOS circuits, distributed system architecture

1.                  C. A. Mead and L. A. Conway, Introduction to VLSI Systems (Addison-Wesley, California 1978).
2.                  D. A. Hodges and H. G. Jackson, Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill 1988).
3.                 M. R. Haskard and I. C. May, Analog VLSI Design (Prentice-Hall 1988).

 

Track : High Frequency

 

EL-612                 Engineering Optics

Theory of diffraction, fresnel zone plates, video disc systems, design of lenses, Fourier transforming and imaging properties of lenses, holography, optical imaging systems, spatial filtering, information processing, pattern recognition optical computing

1.                  K. Lizuka, Engineering Optics (Spirnger-Verlag 1987).
2.                  J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill 1968).
3.                  F. T. S. Yu, Optical Information Processing (John Wiley 1983).
4.                  A. Nussbaum and R. A. Philips, Contemporary Optics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall 1976).
5.                  M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon 1976).

 EL-621                 Wave Propagation

Maxwell’s equation, Greens functions, plane wave spectrum, multiple expansions, propagation in general homogeneous media, guided wave propagation; radiowave, propagation, scattering of electromagnetic waves.

1.                  C. H. Papas, Theory Electromagnetics Wave Propagation (Dover 1988).
2.                  J. A. Kong, Electromagnetic Theory (John Wiley 1986).
3.                  C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetic (John Wiley 1989).

 EL-712                 Fiber Optics

Introduction to optical fibers, wave and ray optics, TE and TM modes in dielectric slab waveguides, characterization of modes in step-index and graded-index fibers, power distribution and delay distortions, fabrication of optical fibers, fiber measurements, sources coupling splicing a connectors, examples of fiber communications systems.

1.                  A. H. Cherrin, Introduction to Optical Fibers (McGraw-Hill 1983).
2.                  J. E. Midwinter, Optical Fibers for Transmission (John Wiley 1979).
3.                  D. Maruse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements (A academic Press  1981).

EL-721                 Microwave Engineering

Microwave network analysis, impendence matching, passive microwave devices, microwave filter design, active microwave circuits, microwave detectors and mixers.

1.                  D. M. Pozer, Microwave Engineering (Addison-Wesley 1990).
2.                  R. E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering (McGraw-Hill 1966).
3.                  S. Ramo, J. R. Whnnery and T. Van Duzer, Fields and Wave in Communication Electronics John Wiley 1994).

EL-724                  Antennas

Basic antenna parameters, wire antennas, aperture antennas, analysis and synthesis of antenna arrays, receiving antennas, special antenna structure.

1.                  R. S. Elliott, Antenna Theory and Design (Prentice-Hall 1981).
2.                  R. E. Collin, Antennas and Radiowave Propagation (McGraw-Hill 1985).
3.                  J. D. Kraus, Antennas (McGraw-Hill 1988).

 EL-761                Remote Sensing   

Radiative Transfer Theory: Black Body Radiation; Microwave Radiometry; Atmospheric Propagation and Emission; Radiometer Receivers; Surface and Volume Scattering and Emission; Applications to Meteorology, Oceanography, Hydrology.

1.               C. E. John, Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing, (John Wiley 1987)
2.               Ya-Qiu Jin, Electromagnetic Scattering, Modeling for Quantitative Remote Sensing, (World Scientific 1994)
3.               Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Richard K. Moore, Adrian K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Vol. I:  Fundamentals and Radiometry, (Artech House, 1981)     
4.              Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Richard K. Moore, Adrian K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Vol. II: Fundamentals and Surface Scattering and Emission                                                   Theory,  (Artech House 1982)
5.             Leung Tsang, Jin Au Kong, Robert T Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing, (Wiley Interscience 1985)

 EL-762              High Frequency Electromagnetic

High Frequency asymptotic Techniques: Modal Solution (MS), Geometric Optics (GO), Physical Optics (PO), Geometric Theory of Diffraction (GTD), Physical Theory of Diffraction (PTD), Radar Cross Section (RCS), Radiation and Scattering from complex Structures.

1.                  C. A. Balanis, Advance Engineering Electromagnetics, (John Wiley 1989)
2.                  D. Bouche,  F. Mollinet, R. Mittra, Asymptotic Methods in Electromagnetics, (Springer 1994)

EL-763              Numerical Electromagnetic

EM Theory, Integral Equation and Differential Equation Methods for Scattering from Infinite Cylinders, Algorithms for solution of Linear System of Equations, Discretization Process, Alternative Surface Integral Equation Formulations, 2D structures with 1D periodicity, 3D problems with Translational or Rotational Symmtery, Subsectional Basis Functions for Multidimensional and Vector Problems, Integral Equation Methods for 3D bodies, Frequency Domain Differential Equation formulation for open 3D problems, FDTD on orthogonal meshes.

1.            Andrew F. Peterson, Scott L. Ray and Raj Mittra, Computational Methods for Electromagnetics, (IEEE press 1998)
2.             N. O. Sadiku, Numerical Techniques in Electromagnetics, Mathew 2nd Ed. (CRC Press 2000)

 

Track : Circuits and Systems

 

EL-622                 Digital Signal Processing

Theory and design of FIR and IIR filters, digital ladder filtering, multirate filtering, adaptive filtering, finite word length and quantization effectrs in digital filters, fast fourier and number transforms and their applications, two dimensional signal processing, applications of digital signal processing, special purpose hardware for DSP, families of general purpose DSP chips

1.                  L. Rabiner and B. Gold, Theory and Application of Digital signal Processing (Prentice-Hall 1975).
2.                  M. Bellanger, Digital Processing of Signals (John Wiley 1975).
3.                  A. Oppenheim and R. Schafer, Digital Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall 1975).
4.                  J. H. McClellen and R. Schafer, Digital Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall 1975).

 EL-725                 Advanced Digital Signal Processing

 Linear prediction, kalman filters, method of steepest descent, LMS algorithm, GAL algorithm, singular value decomposition, super-resolution algorithms using eigenvectors, standard recursive least square estimation, recursive feast-squares systolic arrays, fast transversal filters, recursive least-squares lattice filters, QR decomposition-based least squares lattice, blind deconvolution.

1.                  S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory (Prentice-Hall 1991).
2.                  S. J. Organidis, Optimum Signal Processing, (McGraw-Hill 1990).

 EL-722                 Digital Image Processing

Image acquisition and digitization, low-level IP algorithms, filtering and edge detection, intermediate level algorithms, thinning, segmentation counter tracing, Hough transform parameterization, pattern recognition algorithms and technique, image processing, systems.

1.                  R. Gonzales and P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley 1987).
2.                  O. D. Fougeras, Fundamentals of Computer Vision (Cambridge University Press 1983).
3.                  W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (John Wiley 1978).
4.                  D. Marr, Vision (freeman 1982).
5.                  J. Kitler and M. Duff, Image Processing System Architectures (Academic Press 1985).

 EL-641                  Networks Synthesis

Systems function and network response, scaling, properties of impedances, syntheses of one-ports, synthesis of ladder networks, pole-zero control by dependent sources, active synthesis with op-amps, approximation of magnitude, phase and delay response, frequency transformations.

1.                  A. Budak, Passive and Active Network Analysis and synthesis (Houghton Mifflin Compan, Boston 1974).
2.                  H.YF. Lam, Analog and Digital Filters (Prentice-Hall 1979).
3.                  M. E. Van Valkenburg, Introduction to Modern Network Synthesis (John Wiley).

 EL-741                 Computer Aided Circuit Design

Device models, network topology, formulation of network equations, algorithms for linear nodal analysis, numerical techniques, algorithms for non-linear nodal analysis, computer formulation of state equations, numerical solutions for dynamic linear and non-linear networks, symbolic network function, sensitivity analysis.

1.                  L. O. Chua and P. M. Lin, Computer Aided Analysis of Electronics Circuits (Prentice-Hall 1975).
2.                  J. Vlach and K. Singhal, Computer Methods for Circuits Analysis and Design (Van Nostrand 1986)

 EL-642                  Chaos, Stability and Control

Hamilton’s Equation, Phase Space, stability conditions, one dimensional electrical systems, mapping, transition to chaos, fractals, resonance analysis, quantum nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos, quantum revivals, dynamical localization, applications.

1.           T. Kapitaniak,  Chaos For Engineers: Theory, Application and Control, (Springer Verlag 2000)
2.           A. J. Lichtenberg and M.A. Lieberman, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, (Springer Verlag,2001)

 EL-743                  Statistical Signal Processing (Estimation Theory)

 Introduction to Estimation, Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimation, Kramer-Rao Lower Bound, Linear Estimators, General Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimation, Best Linear Unbiased Estimators, Maximum Likelihood Estimation, Least Square Approach, Bayesian Estimators.

1.                 H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory (John Wiley 1968)
2.                 K. Sam Shanmugan , Arthur M. Breipohl, Random Signals: Detection, Estimation and Data Analysis (Wiley 1988)
3.                Thomas Kailath, Ali H. Sayed, Babak Hassibi, Linear Estimation (Prentice-Hall 2000)

 

Track : Computing

 

EL-631                   Advanced Computing Systems

Basic concepts and description of computing systems, computer networks and distributed computing, concurrent programming and parallel algorithms, memory management.

1.                  S. Tanebaum, Computer Networks (Prentice-Hall 1989).
2.                  G. W. Gorline, Computer Organizaiton (Prentice-Hall 1986).
3.                  Jean-Lup Bear, Computer Systems Architecture (Computer Science Press 1980).
4.                  S. P. Kartashev and s. I. Karatshev, Designing and Programming Modern Computers and systems, Volk. I (Prentice-Hall1982).

 EL-731                   Advanced Computer Architecture

Review of serial computers, introduction to parallel processing, classifications of computer architectures, pipeline and vector processors, SIMD array processors, multiprocessor MIMD systems, performance evaluation of multiprocessor systems, case studies of multiprocessor systems.

1.                  K. Twang and F. Briggs, Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing (McGraw-Hill 1987).
2.                  D. Evans, Parallel Processing systems (University Press 1982).
3.                  S. Stene, An Introduction to Computer Architecture (McGraw-Hill 1982).

 El-732                     Quantum Computing

Models for Computing, The analysis of computational problems, Quantum circuits, Quantum Fourier Transform and its applications, Quantum search algorithms, Conditions for quantum compotation, Harmonics oscillator quantum computer, Optical photon quantum computers, Optical cavity quantum Electrodynamics, Ion Traps and quantum computing, nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum computation.

1.           Micheal A. Nielsen and   Isaac L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and  Quantum Information (Cambridge  2002)
2.               Dirk Bouwmeester, Arthur Ekert & Anton Zeilinger, The Physics of quantum information: quantum cryptography, quantum Teleportation, quantum                                             computation by Springer Verlag, April 2000
3.           Intro. to Quantum computation and information by Hoi-Kwong Lo, Sand Popescu & Tim Spiller, World Scientific Pub. Co., Jan 2001.

 EL-733                   Operating Systems

Operating systems design and Implementation: Multi-tasking, Concurrency and Synchronization, Inter Process Communication, Deadlock, Scheduling, Resource Allocation, Memory and Storage Management, Input-Output, File System, Protection and Security.

1.                        Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems (Prentice Hall 2001).
2.                       William Stallings, Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles (Prentice Hall 2000)
3.                   Andrew S Tanenbaum Operating Systems: Design and Implementation (Prentice Hall 1987)

 EL-734                     Algorithms

Fundamental Techniques for Designing Efficient Algorithms and Basic Mathematical methods for Analyzing their Performance. Paradigms for Algorithm Design: Divide and Conquer, Greedy Method, Graph Search Techniques, Dynamic Programming, Design Efficient Data Structures and Analysis of the Running time and Space requirements of Algorithms in the worst and average cases.

1.                 T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivese, C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, (MIT Press 2001)
2.                 A.V. Aho, J. E. Hopcroft, J. D. Ullman, The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms (Addison-Wesley 1974)
3.                 R. Sedgewick, P. Flajolet, An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, (Addison-Wesley 1995)

 

Track : Communications

 

 EL-729                    Information Theory

The Concepts of Source, Channel, Rate of Transmission on Information, Entropy and Mutual Information, Noiseless Coding Theorem, Noisy Channels, Coding Theorem for Finite State Zero Memory Channels, Channel Capacity, Error Bounds, Parity Check Codes, Source Encoding, Source Coding Techniques; Quantization; Block Quantization; Differential Predictive Transform and Tree Coding, Introduction to Rate Distortion Theory, Applications; Speech and Image Coding.

1.                 R. Togneri, C. J. S. Desilva, J. J. S. Sullum, Fundamentals of Information Theory and Coding Design (Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications) (Chapman & Hall                   2003)
2.                 T. M. Cover, J. A Thomas, Elements of Information Theory, (Wiley Interscience 1991)
3.             Richard E. Blahut Pearson, Principles and Practice of Information Theory,( Addison Wesley 1987)
4.             Richard E. Blahut Pearson, Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes, (Addison Wesley 1983)

 EL-761                   Digital Communications System

Signals and Spectra, Formatting and Base Band Transmission, Band Pass Modulation and Demodulation, Communications Link Analysis, Multiplexing and Multiple Access, Spread Spectrum Techniques.

1.        J. M. Wozencraft and I. M. Jacobs, Principles of Communication Engineering (John Wiley 1965).
2.        D. J. Skarison, Communication Theory; Transmission of Waveforms and   digital Information (John Wiley 1968)
3.        S. Kaykin, communication systems, 2nd edition (John Wiley 1983)
4.        J. Proakis, Introduction to Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill 1983).
5.        B. Sklar, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Application (Prentice Hall 1988).
6.        Richard E. Blahut  Pearson, Digital Transmission of Information, (Addison  Wesley 1990)
7.        Leon W. Couch, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, (Prentice Hall 2001)

EL-662                      Error Correcting Codes

Introduction to Algebra, Linear Block Codes, Arithmetic of Galois Fields, Cyclic Codes and their circuits, BCH codes, Codes based on Spectral Techniques, Algorithms Based on Spectral Techniques, Multidimensional Spectral Techniques, Fast Algorithms, Convolutional Codes, Codes and Algorithms for Decoding with Majority Logic, Composition and Performance of Error Correcting Codes, Efficient signaling for Noisy Channels.

1.              Richard E. Blahut, Theory And Practice of Error Control Codes, (Addison-Wesley 1983)
2.                  W. W. Peterson and E. J. Weldon Jr., Error Correcting Codes, (MIT press 1972)
3.                  Shu Lin, Daniel J. Costello, Error Control Coding: Fundamentals and Applications, (Prentice-Hall 1982)
4.                  Neil J. A. Sloane, Florence Jessie, The Theory of Error-Correcting Codes, (MacWilliams 1983)

 EL-762                     Queuing Theory 

Introduction to Queuing Systems, Important Random Processes, Birth-Death Queuing Systems in Equilibrium, Markovian Queues  in Equilibrium, M/G/1 Queues, G/M/m Queues, Method of Collective marks, G/G/1 Queues.

1                 L. Klienrock, Queuing Systems, Vol 1, (John-Wieley  1975)
2                 D. Gross, C. M. Harris,  Fundamentals of Queuing Theory,  (John Wiley   1998)

 EL-763                   Quantum Information 

Classical noise and Markov Processes, Quantum operations, Limitations of quantum operations formulism, distance measures for quantum information, quantum error correction, Shannon entropy, Von Nuemann entropy, Strong subadditivity, Holevo bound, Schumacher’s quantum noiseless channels, Quantum information over noisy quantum channels, Entanglement, Quantum Cryptography.

1.        Micheal A. Nielsen and Isaac L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge 2000).
2.              Dirk Bouwmeester, Arthur Ekert & Anton Zeilinger, The Physics of quantum information: Quantum Cryptography, quantum Teleportation, quantum computation                                                    (Springer Verlag 2000)
3.          Hoi-Kwong Lo, Sand and Popescu & Tim Spiller, Introduction to Quantum Computation and Information (World Scientific 2001)

EL-764                     Cryptography

Classical cryptography, cryptanalysis, entropy, Data Encryption Standard, Time-memory trade off, differential crypto analysis, RSA cryptosystem, probabilistic primality testing, factoring algorithms, signature scheme, Key distribution and key agreement, quantum key distribution, quantum error correction codes, quantum circuits, authentication code, secret sharing schemes

1.               Douglas R Stinson Cryptography Theory and Application (CRC 1995)
2.                Dirk Bouwmeester, Arthur Ekert & Anton Zeilinger, The Physics of quantum information: quantum cryptography, quantum Teleportation, quantum   computation                     (Springer Verlag 2000)

 

Track : Core

 

EL-625                 Mathematical Methods

Ordinary Differential Equations, Difference Equations, Approximate Solutions of Linear Differential Equations, Approximate Solutions of Non-Linear Differential Equations, Approximate Solutions of Difference Equations, Approximate Expansion of Integrals, Perturbation series, Summation Series, WKB theory.

1.                  C. M. Bender and S. A. Orszag, Advance Mathematical Methods for Scientist and Engineers, (McGraw Hill 1987)
2.                  N. Bleistein and R. A. Handelsman, Asymptotic Expansion of Integrals, (Holt, Reinchart and Winston 1975)
3.                  A. H. Nayfeh, Perturbation Methods, (John Wiley 1973)

 EL-626                Applied Probability Theory

Introduction to Probability, Random Variables, Bi-variate Probability Distributions, Multiple Random Variables, Heavy Tail Distributions and their Applications, Application to Digital Communication Systems, Quality Assurance.

1.               C. W. Helstrom, Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers, (Macmillan  1991)
2.               A. Papoulis, S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, (McGraw-Hill  2001)
3.               A. Leon-Garcia, Probability and Random Processes for Electrical Engineering (Addison-Wesley  1993)

EL-623             Stochastic Processes

Discrete Time Stochastic Processes: Expected Value, Covariance, Spectra, Markov Processes, Linear Discrete Time Systems Driven by White Noise, Measurement of Stationary Processes, Continuous Time Stochastic Processes; Expected Value; Auto-covariance Functions; Transformation of Stochastic Processes; Measurement of Stochastic Processes; Spectrum Density of a Stationary Process; Poisson, Affiliated and Guassian Stochastic Processes, Continuity and Differentiability of Stochastic Processes, Linear Differential Equations with Random Forcing Terms, Thermal Noise, Markov Processes in Continuous Time

1.               Carl W. Helstrom, Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers,  (Macmillan 1991)
2.               Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill 1985).
3.               W. B. Davenport Jr., Probability and Random Processes (McGraw-Hill 1970).

EL-655:           Oversampling Data Converters (Ph.D)         

This course focuses on function and application of DAC and ADC converters. Ideal ADCs, DACs modeling operations, specification metrics. Non-idealities like offset and gain error, DNL, INL, non-monotonicity, missing codes, SNR, DR, SFDR, etc. Different DAC architectures like decoder-type, binary, thermometer, hybrid DACs. The circuit structures of R-string and R-laddercircuit, current-steering, charge-redistribution, hybrid, segmented DACs. Discuss in details ADC architectures like integrating, successive approximation and algorithmic, pipelined, time-interleaved, sub-ranging and two-step, interpolating, folding and flash ADCs. Also, discuss in details ADC circuits: resistor-string, charge-redistribution, current-steering, hybrid, and folding/interpolating circuits. Operation principles of delta-sigma DACs and ADCs. Main architecture for realization of DAC and ADCs. Finally, Circuit realization and non-idealities of delta-sigma modulator data converter.

1.         Gray et al., Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits, Wiley, 2001
2.         Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill, 2001
3.         Johns and Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design, Wiley, 1997
4.         Allen and Holberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, Oxford, 2002
5.         Razavi, Principles of Data Conversion System Design, IEEE Press, 1995

EL-727:          Radar Signal Processing and System Design (Ph.D)

Range, Doppler frequency, coherency, pulse repetition frequency, radar cross section, radar equation, jamming, radar losses, continuous wave and pulsed radar, radar antennas and beam forming, radar transmitter, linear frequency modulation CW radar, resolving range and Doppler ambiguities, detection in the presence of noise, probability of false alarm, probability of detection, pulse integration, constant false alarm rate (CFAR), cell-Averaging CFAR, radar waveforms, matched filter, radar ambiguity function, pulse compression, radar wave propagation, earth atmosphere, ground reflection, rough surface reflection, surface and volume clutter, moving target indicator, single and double delay line canceller.

1.                 BYRON Edde, Radar principles, technology and applications, Pearson education Inc., second edition, 2008.
2.                 Clive Alabaster, Pulse Doppler Radar principles, technology, applications, Scitech publishing, first edition, 2012.
3.                  Bassem R. Mahafza, Radar systems analysis and design using MATLAB, Chapman & Hall/CRC, First edition, 2000.

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Department of Electronics
Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. 
Tel: +9251-9064-3161

 

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 Tel: +9251-9064-3500 

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 Tel: +9251-9064-3161

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